Construct Validity Reference Guide

To test for construct validity, Clark and Watson’s (1995) literature review summarized a Cronbach and Meehl’s (1955) procedure as (a) covering theoretical construct concepts: (a) cover theoretical concept interrelations, (b) cover theoretical concept measures, and (c) cover theoretical concept interrelation measures—the nomological net. This net will be made sensitive (e.g., detectors in particle collision chambers, photographic film, radio antenna, keyboard, touch screens, measuring stick, scale, mediation model) to phenomena (i.e., the territory), logic (i.e., the map), and here is where the quantization limit is reached.

If there is a map of the territory, then, a more accurate map is the map of the map of the territory. This is the principle of differentiation.

Integrated differentiation’s volume is less than

This is aligned to grounded theory emergence of core categories and categorical relations.


Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309–319.

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281—302.