This was distilled from CENGAGE’s MindTap Exercise on Bullying and Aggression; additional sources will be added when assistive.
General characteristics of victims are peer rejection, peer relational issues, socially awkward behavior, and/or passive behavior in group settings (Egan & Perry, 1998; Ladd et al., 1997; Nansel et al., 2001).
Specific characteristics of female victims that increase the probability of victimization include, but are not limited to: fewer friends, salient differences with peers (e.g., “nerdy”, not abiding by social expectancies of social norms, early onset of puberty), provocative behavior (i.e., reaction elicitation), social awkwardness, general appearance/ethnicity (Olweus, 1993).
Specific characteristics of mental health problem victims that increase probability of victimization (e.g., anxiety, depression, aggression, emotional problems) (Cranham & Carroll, 2003; Craig et al., 1998; Lumeng et al., 2010).
Situational characteristics may influence victimization are chaotic and violent home environments and troubled parent-child relationships (Finnegan et al, 1998; Mohr, 2006; Schwartz et al., 2000).
Situational characteristics that attenuate victimization are friendships (e.g., at minimum one close friendship), where a high quality friendship minimizes bullying (Cards & Hinshaw, 2011; Goldbaum et al., 2003; Schwartz et al., 2000).
Bullied children exhibit lower probability of school enjoyment, higher in probability of lower grades, and higher probability of drop out (Cornell et al., 2013; Ladd et al, 1997; Nansel et al., 2001).
Academic competency is correlated with lower probability of victimization (Jeong et al, 2013; Juvonen et al., 2000).
Cyberbullied children exhibit higher probability of school absence, difficulty concentrating in school, and report evidence higher probability of lower grades (Beran & Li, 2007).
Mental Health Effects
Bullied children exhibit higher probability to report symptoms of mental health issues (e.g., depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) (Klomek et al., 2009; van Der Wal et al., 2003).
Female victims at age 8 exhibit higher probability of later suicide attempts and suicide completions, controlling for existing child behavioral problems (e.g., conduct disorder) and depressive symptoms (Klomek et al., 2009).
Cyberbullied children exhibit higher probabilities of psychopathology, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches, physical pain) (Beran & Li, 2007; Klomek et al., 2009; Hawker & Boulton, 2000; Mitchell et al., 2007; Privitera & Campbell, 2009; Nordahl et al., 2013; Sounder et al., 2010; Ybarra et al., 2007).
Cyberbullied children exhibit suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (Klomek & Gould, 2014; Hinduja & Patching, 2010).
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