References – Bullying

This was distilled from CENGAGE’s MindTap Exercise on Bullying and Aggression; additional sources will be added when assistive.


General characteristics of victims are peer rejection, peer relational issues, socially awkward behavior, and/or passive behavior in group settings (Egan & Perry, 1998; Ladd et al., 1997; Nansel et al., 2001).

Specific characteristics of female victims that increase the probability of victimization include, but are not limited to: fewer friends, salient differences with peers (e.g., “nerdy”, not abiding by social expectancies of social norms, early onset of puberty), provocative behavior (i.e., reaction elicitation), social awkwardness, general appearance/ethnicity (Olweus, 1993).

Specific characteristics of mental health problem victims that increase probability of victimization (e.g., anxiety, depression, aggression, emotional problems) (Cranham & Carroll, 2003; Craig et al., 1998; Lumeng et al., 2010).

Situational characteristics may influence victimization are chaotic and violent home environments and troubled parent-child relationships (Finnegan et al, 1998; Mohr, 2006; Schwartz et al., 2000).

Protective Effects

Situational characteristics that attenuate victimization are friendships (e.g., at minimum one close friendship), where a high quality friendship minimizes bullying (Cards & Hinshaw, 2011; Goldbaum et al., 2003; Schwartz et al., 2000).


Bullied children exhibit lower probability of school enjoyment, higher in probability of lower grades, and higher probability of drop out (Cornell et al., 2013; Ladd et al, 1997; Nansel et al., 2001).

Academic competency is correlated with lower probability of victimization (Jeong et al, 2013; Juvonen et al., 2000).

Cyberbullied children exhibit higher probability of school absence, difficulty concentrating in school, and report evidence higher probability of lower grades (Beran & Li, 2007).

Mental Health Effects

Bullied children exhibit higher probability to report symptoms of mental health issues (e.g., depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) (Klomek et al., 2009; van Der Wal et al., 2003).

Female victims at age 8 exhibit higher probability of later suicide attempts and suicide completions, controlling for existing child behavioral problems (e.g., conduct disorder) and depressive symptoms (Klomek et al., 2009).

Cyberbullied children exhibit higher probabilities of psychopathology, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches, physical pain) (Beran & Li, 2007; Klomek et al., 2009; Hawker & Boulton, 2000; Mitchell et al., 2007; Privitera & Campbell, 2009; Nordahl et al., 2013; Sounder et al., 2010; Ybarra et al., 2007).

Cyberbullied children exhibit suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (Klomek & Gould, 2014; Hinduja & Patching, 2010).


Cardoos, S. L., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2011). Friendship as protection from peer victimization for girls with and without ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(7), 1035–1045.

Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of teasing and bullying predicts high school dropout rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 138–149.

Cranham, J., & Carroll, A. (2003). Dynamics within the bully/victim paradigm: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(2), 113–132.

Egan, S. K., Monson, T. C., & Perry, D. G. (1998). Social-cognitive influences on change in aggression over time. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 996–1006.

Finnegan, R. A., Hodges, E. V., & Perry, D. G. (1998). Victimization by peers: Associations with children’s reports of mother-child interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(4), 1076–1086.

Goldbaum, S., Craig, W. M., Pepler, D., & Connolly, J. (2003). Developmental trajectories of victimization: Identifying risk and protective factors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19(2), 139–156.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206–221.

Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., Moilanen, I., Almqvist, F., & Gould, M. S. (2008). Childhood bullying as a risk for later depression and suicidal ideation among Finnish males. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109(1–2), 47–55.

Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Niemelä, S., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., Almqvist, F., & Gould, M. S. (2009). Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: A population-based birth cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(3), 254–261.

Jeong, S., Kwak, D. -H., Moon, B., & San Miguel, C. (2013). Predicting school bullying victimization: Focusing on individual and school environmental/security factors.  Journal of Criminology, 2013, 1–13.

Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2000). Peer harassment, psychological adjustment, and school functioning in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 349–359.

Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1997). Classroom peer acceptance, friendship, and victimization: Distinct relational systems that contribute uniquely to children’s school adjustment? Child Development, 68(6), 1181.

Li, T. B. Q. (2005). Cyber-harassment: A study of a new method for an old behavior. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(3), 265–277.

Lumeng, J. C., Forrest, P., Appugliese, D. P., Kaciroti, N., Corwyn, R. F., & Bradley, R. H. (2010). Weight status as a predictor of being bullied in third through sixth grades. Pediatrics, 125(6).

Mynard, H., & Joseph, S. (1997). Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck’s personality dimensions in 8 to 13 year-olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67(1), 51–54.

Mitchell, K. J., Ybarra, M., & Finkelhor, D. (2007). The relative importance of online victimization in understanding depression, delinquency, and substance use. Child Maltreatment, 12(4), 314–324.

Mohr, A. (2006). Family variables associated with peer victimization: Does family violence enhance the probability of being victimized by peers? Swiss Journal of Psychology / Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Revue Suisse de Psychologie, 65(2), 107–116.

Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094–2100.

Privitera, C., & Campbell, M. A. (2009). Cyberbullying: The new face of workplace bullying? Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 12(4), 395–400.

Olweus, D. (1993). Bully/victim problems in school. Prospects, 26(2), 331–359.

Pepler, D. J., & Craig, W. M. (2007). Understanding bullying: From research to practice. Canadian Psychology, 48(2), 86–93.

Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2000). Friendship as a moderating factor in the pathway between early harsh home environment and later victimization in the peer group. The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Developmental Psychology, 36(5), 646–662.

Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., Ristkari, T., & Helenius, H. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 720–728.

Ybarra, M. L., Diener-West, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2007). Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6 Suppl 1).